Reducing unions join two pieces of tubing of different ODs. Select the union with the bore that matches the ID of the tubing. If the IDs are different, choose the union with a bore which matches the smaller tube bore. Standard material is 300 series stainless steel. Contact the factory for other available options.
Internal fittings are almost always the best with tubing of 1/8" OD or smaller. They make a stronger connection and offer the lower volume necessary for high performance instrumentation. Also, because 1/16" external fittings have very thin, easily distorted walls, they are not as durable as 1/16" internal fittings. In sizes larger than 1/8", external fittings are generally easier to make up because of less thread friction.
Bulkhead versions are designed to be mounted through an instrument panel or on a bracket. The fitting body is undercut so that it bites into the panel when the mounting nut is tightened, eliminating the need for a lock washer. An O-ring can be installed between the body and the panel to allow operation in purged environments. Typically the mounting nut goes inside the instrument, so that the long threaded portion will be out of sight. In the external/internal bulkhead unions, the mounting nut is on the side with the Valco internal fitting.
Internal reducing unions have female threads and a fitting detail for zero volume fittings. The nuts have male (external) threads.
External reducing unions have male threads, requiring a nut with internal threads.
External/internal reducing unions have male threads on the end for the larger tubing, and female threads on the other. This is the recommended part for connecting to an existing external nut.